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Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto

The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG.
X. Differential abundances in the XO-2 planet-hosting binary

K. Biazzo, R. Gratton, S. Desidera, S. Lucatello, A. Sozzetti, A. S. Bonomo, M. Damasso, D. Gandolfi, L. Affer, C. Boccato, F. Borsa, R. Claudi, R. Cosentino, E. Covino, C. Knapic, A. F. Lanza, J. Maldonado, F. Marzari, G. Micela, P. Molaro, I. Pagano, M. Pedani, I. Pillitteri, G. Piotto, E. Poretti, M. Rainer, N. C. Santos, G. Scandariato, R. Zanmar Sanchez

Abstract
Binary stars hosting exoplanets are a unique laboratory where chemical tagging can be performed to measure the elemental abundances of both stellar components with high accuracy, with the aim to investigate the formation of planets and their subsequent evolution. Here, we present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of the XO-2 wide stellar binary based on high-resolution HARPS-N at TNG spectra. Both components are very similar K-dwarfs and host planets. Since they formed presumably within the same molecular cloud, we expect that they possess the same initial elemental abundances. We investigated whether planets can cause some chemical imprints in the stellar atmospheric abundances. We measure abundances of 25 elements for both stars with a range of condensation temperature TC = 40−1741 K, achieving typical precisions of ~0.07 dex. The northern component shows abundances in all elements higher by +0.067 ± 0.032 dex on average, with a mean difference of +0.078 dex for elements with TC > 800 K. The significance of the XO-2N abundance difference relative to XO-2S is at the 2σ level for almost all elements. We discuss that this result might be interpreted as the signature of the ingestion of material by XO-2N or depletion in XO-2S that is due to locking of heavy elements by the planetary companions. We estimate a mass of several tens of M in heavy elements. The difference in abundances between XO-2N and XO-2S shows a positive correlation with the condensation temperatures of the elements, with a slope of (4.7 ± 0.9) × 10-5 dex K-1, which could mean that both components have not formed terrestrial planets, but first experienced the accretion of rocky core interior to the subsequent giant planets.

Keywords
planetary systems - stars: abundances - techniques: spectroscopic - stars: individual: XO-2N - stars: individual: XO-2S

Astronomy and Astrophysics
Volume 583, Page A135
November 2015

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