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Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto

Evolution of Cosmic Necklaces and Lattices

C. J. A. P. Martins

Abstract
Previously developed analytic models for the evolution of cosmic string and monopole networks are applied to networks of monopoles attached to two or more strings; the former case is usually know as cosmic necklaces. These networks are a common consequence of models with extra dimensions such as brane in ation. Our quantitative analysis agrees with (and extends) previous simpler estimates, but we will also highlight some differences. A linear scaling solution is usually the attractor solution for both the radiation and matter-dominated epochs, but other scaling laws can also exist, depending on the universe's expansion rate and the network's energy loss mechanisms.

Physical Review D
Volume 82, Page 067301_1
September 2010

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Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences

Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences (IA) is a new but long anticipated research infrastructure with a national dimension. It embodies a bold but feasible vision for the development of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences in Portugal, taking full advantage and fully realizing the potential created by the national membership of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). IA resulted from the merging the two most prominent research units in the field in Portugal: the Centre for Astrophysics of the University of Porto (CAUP) and the Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics of the University of Lisbon (CAAUL). It currently hosts more than two-thirds of all active researchers working in Space Sciences in Portugal, and is responsible for an even greater fraction of the national productivity in international ISI journals in the area of Space Sciences. This is the scientific area with the highest relative impact factor (1.65 times above the international average) and the field with the highest average number of citations per article for Portugal.

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